Here's the beginning and the results from the article:
"The Urban Heat Island effect describes the relatively higher temperatures found in urban areas compared with rural surroundings, and is the result of several different factors. Building materials that absorb heat, the loss of moisture in the air due to reduced vegetation and paving over soil, as well as sources of heat, such as traffic, can all contribute to the Urban Heat Island.
In this study, researchers recorded temperature and humidity between April and August at 12 sites located at different distances from a small river running through the city of Sheffield, UK. Sites were located in areas of different ‘urban form’; either in an open square, an open street, a closed street or completely enclosed by buildings. To quantify the effect of the river on temperatures, these measurements were compared with another site, which was distant from the river but similar in all other properties except that of altitude, which was accounted for in the analysis.
The researchers conclude that rivers do have cooling effects and that future policies to uncover underground rivers could be of value in urban environments where high temperatures can have a negative effect on health and wellbeing. However, they stress that urban form surrounding the river corridor is more important than the simple presence or absence of a river and that cooling effects can be greatly enhanced by careful consideration of urban design."
- Hathway, E. A. and Sharples, S. (2012). The interaction of rivers and urban form in mitigating the urban heat island effect: a UK case study. Building and Environment. 58: 14-22. DOI 10.1016/j.buildenv.2012.06.013.
- Saraiva M.G, Ramos I.L, Vaz L, Bernardo F, Condessa B. TOWARDS SUSTAINABILITY IN REHABILITATING URBAN RIVER LANDSCAPES. CROSSING ECOLOGY WITH SOCIAL CONCERNS, 4th ECRR Conference on River Restoration